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Nootropic Peptides: Brain Function Research

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The ideal chemicals for brain function may be a question for nootropic peptide researchers. Our experienced team has combed through the most recent studies in this dynamic area to compile this all-inclusive reference on nootropic peptides.

This comprehensive review explains the best peptides for brain function and cognition research studies, how they work, and where to purchase them.

Semax Peptide

Semax, also known as ACTH(4-7)Pro-Gly-Pro, is a synthetic version of the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH(4-10). Studies suggest ACTH(4-10) or Semax might not affect the endocrine system. Research suggests that Semax enters the brain and may interact with several neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitters because of its architecture. Consequently, the peptide has been hypothesized to have strong nootropic and neuroprotective potential. Cognitive dysfunction, stroke, optic nerve injury, encephalopathies, and other neurological reasons have all been investigated in Russian research studies.

Selank is a manufactured version of the naturally occurring immunomodulatory peptide tuftsin, which is present in the blood of certain animals. Tuftsin is a component of immunoglobulin G. The C-terminus of Selank is supplemented with Pro-Gly-Pro, much like Semax. Thus, Selank may cross the blood-brain barrier and influence many neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors.

Findings imply that Selank may improve response speed, memory, and attention, suggesting its nootropic properties in research models of vascular-based illnesses.

P-21 Peptide

Scientists speculate that a novel peptide called P-21 (P021) may mimic ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and is modified at the C-terminus with adamantylated glycine so that it may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

Reportedly, it may increase the production of other neurotrophic factors and downregulate the leukemia inhibitory factor, which may lead to increased neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Thus, this peptide is the subject of intense research into cognitive impairment-related disorders in search of its possible nootropic and neuroprotective properties. According to a preliminary rodent study, it seems to help alleviate cognitive and synaptic dysfunction.

Research Peptides: What are they?

It has been hypothesized that synthetic peptides are one-of-a-kind and may have far-reaching consequences. Research peptides, like naturally occurring peptides, consist of chains of amino acids, typically ranging in length from 2 to 50, and may be further changed by adding non-peptide components. Researchers assert that, like their natural analogs, research peptides may control various physiological and psychological processes, such as learning and memory, metabolism, and muscle development and repair.

The invention of insulin, the first peptide compound, in 1922 marked the beginning of a century-long period known as peptide therapy. Many peptides that might have practical properties are under development, and several more are undergoing preclinical study. Research peptides have emerged as one of the fastest-growing subfields within pharmacological research.

Research Peptides and the Brain

Studies suggest that peptides might be involved in various physiological processes that rely on their capacity to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to operate and think. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a semipermeable membrane separating the brain’s circulatory system from the surrounding neuronal tissue. While the BBB keeps dangerous compounds out of the brain, it may act as a barrier for some compounds, such as peptides, which can have negative effects.

Research suggests that a key feature of nootropic peptides may be their ability to cross this barrier and impact neurochemistry in the brain. It is theorized that when these peptides reach the brain, they may engage in neurotrophic factor-like activities or imitate those of other neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, NGF, and CNTF.

Neurotrophic factors are proteins that help neurons at all stages of development—from precursors to fully formed neurons—to thrive and differentiate. When it comes to brain plasticity, they are critical. Interactions between peptides and other molecules, such as neurotrophic factors, hormones, or cellular receptors, are common. Investigations purport they might also influence mental operations by adjusting the activity or manifestation of these entities.

Neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and enkephalins, are involved in reward, motivation, and mood regulation; for instance, some peptides have been asserted to increase their levels. Findings imply some may modify neurogenesis by interacting with growth factor receptors. In contrast, others may imitate proteins like Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), which involves neuron-neuron adhesion, synaptic plasticity, and learning memory. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that nootropic peptides may significantly improve brain function and cognition regardless of their mode of action.

Visit www.corepeptides.com for the highest-quality research compounds and the most educational peptide articles. Please note that none of the substances mentioned in this article have been approved for human or animal consumption and should not be purchased by unlicensed individuals.

References

[i] Deigin, V. I., Poluektova, E. A., Beniashvili, A. G., Kozin, S. A., & Poluektov, Y. M. (2022). Development of Peptide Biopharmaceuticals in Russia. Pharmaceutics, 14(4), 716. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14040716

[ii] Shevchenko, K. V., Nagaev, I. I.u, Alfeeva, L. I.u, Andreeva, L. A., Kamenskiĭ, A. A., Levitskaia, N. G., Shevchenko, V. P., Grivennikov, I. A., & Miasoedov, N. F. (2006). Bioorganicheskaia khimiia, 32(1), 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1134/s1068162006010055

[iii] Eremin, K. O., Kudrin, V. S., Saransaari, P., Oja, S. S., Grivennikov, I. A., Myasoedov, N. F., & Rayevsky, K. S. (2005). Semax, an ACTH(4-10) analogue with nootropic properties, activates dopaminergic and serotoninergic brain systems in rodents. Neurochemical research, 30(12), 1493–1500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-8826-8

[iv] Kost, N. V., Sokolov, O. I.u, Gabaeva, M. V., Grivennikov, I. A., Andreeva, L. A., Miasoedov, N. F., & Zozulia, A. A. (2001). Ingibiruiushchee deĭstvie semaksa i selanka na énkefalindegradiruiushchie fermenty syvorotki krovi cheloveka [Semax and selank inhibit the enkephalin-degrading enzymes from human serum]]. Bioorganicheskaia khimiia, 27(3), 180–183. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1011373002885

[v] Dolotov, O. V., Karpenko, E. A., Inozemtseva, L. S., Seredenina, T. S., Levitskaya, N. G., Rozyczka, J., Dubynina, E. V., Novosadova, E. V., Andreeva, L. A., Alfeeva, L. Y., Kamensky, A. A., Grivennikov, I. A., Myasoedov, N. F., & Engele, J. (2006). Semax, an analog of ACTH(4-10) with cognitive effects, regulates BDNF and trkB expression in the rat hippocampus. Brain research, 1117(1), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.07.108

[vi] . Kolomin, T., Shadrina, M., Slominsky, P., Limborska, S., & Myasoedov, N. (2013). A new generation of drugs: synthetic peptides based on natural regulatory peptides. Neuroscience and Medicine, 4(04), 223-252.

[vii] Kaplan, A. Y. A., Kochetova, A. G., Nezavibathko, V. N., Rjasina, T. V., & Ashmarin, I. P. (1996). Synthetic acth analogue semax displays nootropic‐like activity in humans. Neuroscience Research Communications, 19(2), 115-123.

[viii] Manchenko, D. M., Glazova, N. I.u, Levitskaia, N. G., Andreeva, L. A., Kamenskiĭ, A. A., & Miasoedov, N. F. (2010). Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni I.M. Sechenova, 96(10), 1014–1023.